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Transforming the Future of Infrastructure: Reusing Plastic Waste in Roads and Buildings

Photo: Stanford News - Stanford University
In an era where sustainability and environmental consciousness are paramount, engineers and researchers are exploring innovative solutions to address plastic waste and its impact on the environment. At the forefront of this endeavor are Stanford engineers Michael Lepech and Zhiye Li, who envision a future where buildings and roads are constructed using recycled plastic waste. Their groundbreaking research, commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM), delves into the possibility of utilizing plastic waste in infrastructure, focusing on its long-term durability and environmental benefits.

Repurposing Plastic Waste in Infrastructure: Opportunities and Obstacles

The Challenge of Plastic Waste Streams

One of the major obstacles identified in their research is the complexity of managing plastic waste streams from municipal solid waste. The mass and composition of plastic waste can vary significantly, making it challenging to establish a consistent and economically viable recycling process.

The Promise of Recycling Entire Buildings

Lepech and Li’s research highlights the potential game-changing impact of recycling entire buildings made of polymer composites at the end of their useful lives. By utilizing materials with uniform compositions, the recycling process becomes significantly easier, contributing to a more sustainable circular economy

Recommendations for Advancing Plastic Waste Upcycling

The white paper by Lepech and Li proposes several key recommendations to advance plastic waste upcycling in infrastructure applications. These recommendations include improving waste sorting practices, encouraging and supporting plastic upcycling innovation, establishing a performance database for specific plastic blends, and developing predictable models for material durability under different use conditions.

The Circular Economy and Plastic Waste Upcycling

Creating Value by Meeting Performance Requirements

Upcycling  recycled plastics Infrastructure exemplifies how creating value aligns with creating demand. By ensuring that recycled plastic-blend construction materials meet performance requirements and maintain lower environmental impacts than conventional materials, the circular economy model fosters sustainability and economic viability.

Environmental and Business Advantages

The upcycling of plastic waste into infrastructure materials offers numerous environmental and business advantages. Companies involved in the circular economy value chain may benefit from regulatory advantages, operational efficiencies, and reduced risks of environmental emergencies. Moreover, targeting markets that value environmentally friendly or sustainable products can lead to significant growth opportunities.

Real-World Application: Plastic Waste Roads and Buildings

A Collaborative Approach to Sustainable Infrastructure

In collaboration with the Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT), researchers from the Mizzou Asphalt Pavement and Innovation Lab (MAPIL) are pioneering the use of recyclables, including plastic waste, to enhance the sustainability of asphalt mixes in road construction. Through a real-world test road project along a portion of Interstate 155 in the Missouri Bootheel, the research aims to reduce landfill waste and environmental leakage while improving the durability of roads.

A Versatile and Scalable Solution

According to MAPIL's research, using recycled materials in asphalt mixes, such as used tires and plastic waste, offers a flexible and scalable solution for improving the sustainability of road infrastructure. This method allows for the easy incorporation of recyclables directly into the asphalt mixture, leading to cost-effective and environmentally conscious road construction practices.


The transformative potential of reusing plastic waste in infrastructure is undeniable. Pioneering research by engineers like Michael Lepech and Zhiye Li and institutions like the University of Missouri is driving innovative solutions to create more sustainable, durable, and environmentally friendly roads and buildings. By embracing the circular economy model and adopting upcycling practices, we can shape a future where plastic waste is not a burden on the environment but a valuable resource in building a more sustainable world.
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